Boiler Heating System

It’s important to have a reliable heating system if you are a homeowner. Among the different types of heating systems, boilers offer a consistent and efficient way to heat your home, so they are a popular choice for many households. Like any mechanical system, boilers can experience issues and need maintenance at certain times. The basics of boiler heating systems, how they work, their types, common problems, and tips for keeping your system running smoothly will be covered in this blog. Whether you’re a seasoned pro or new to boiler maintenance, you’ll find valuable information here to help you keep your home warm and comfortable all winter long.

Boiler Heating
Boiler Heating (Image credit: freepik)

Understanding How Boiler Heating Systems Work

Understanding how your boiler heating system works is an important step in properly maintaining and fixing any issues that may arise. Boilers are a type of heating system that uses hot water or steam. They can be fueled by natural gas, oil, or electricity and are often used in conjunction with a forced air heating system, where a network of pipes and radiators are used to distribute the heat throughout the home.

Working Mechanism of Boiler

A boiler system uses a burner or element to heat the water inside a sealed tank or system of pipes. The water starts to turn into steam as it is heated. The heat from the steam is transferred to the air of the room through pipes and radiators. The steam is returned to the boiler, where it is reheated and the process begins again.

A boiler is a central heating system that uses hot water or steam to warm your home. It combines the functions of a water heater and a furnace in one unit, providing both heat and hot water on demand.

To start a heating cycle, the boiler needs a continuous source of fuel, which is typically natural gas or liquid petroleum gas. When the thermostat triggers a heating cycle or you turn on the hot water faucet, a valve connected to the gas supply opens. The gas enters a sealed combustion chamber, where it is ignited by an electronic igniter or a permanent pilot light.

Once the gas is ignited, hot jets connected to the boiler push water across the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is a series of pipes or tubes that transfer heat from the gas to the water, causing the water to boil and turn into steam. The steam is then circulated through a network of pipes and radiators, which transfer the heat into the air of the room. The cooled steam is then returned to the boiler, where it is reheated and the process begins again.

In addition to heating your home, the boiler can also provide hot water for your faucets by using an electric pump to push the hot water into the water supply system. This allows you to have a steady supply of hot water whenever you need it. Overall, a boiler is a reliable and efficient way to heat your home and provide hot water.

It’s important to remember that not all boilers work in the same way. Some use a series of tubes or coils to heat the water while others use a heat exchanger to transfer heat from a different fuel source. The improper size of your boiler can lead to inefficient heating and higher energy costs, so it’s important to size it right.

The Different Types of Boilers and Which One is Right for You

There are several different types of boilers to choose from when it comes to choosing a boiler for your home.

A few of the most common types of boilers include:

Standard Boilers:

Standard boilers, also known as “conventional” or “regular” boilers, are the most traditional type of boiler. They are fueled by natural gas or oil, and use a series of pipes or tubes to heat the water. The heated water is then circulated through a network of radiators or baseboards to warm the home. Standard boilers are typically more affordable than other types, but they can be less efficient and may require a separate tank or storage system to store hot water.

Combi Boilers:

Combi boilers, short for combination boilers, are a more compact option that can provide both heating and hot water on demand. They don’t require a separate tank or storage system, and are often more energy-efficient than standard boilers. Combi boilers are a good choice for smaller homes or for homeowners who don’t have high hot water demand, as they may not be able to meet the needs of larger households.

System Boilers:

System boilers are similar to standard boilers, but they have a separate cylinder to store hot water. This can be helpful if you have a large household with high hot water demand, as the cylinder allows you to store a larger volume of hot water for use when needed. System boilers are a good choice for larger homes, but they may be more expensive than other types due to the additional hardware required.

Condensing Boilers:

Condensing boilers are a more energy-efficient option that are designed to recover as much heat as possible from the fuel they use. They have a higher upfront cost, but can result in significant energy savings over time. Condensing boilers work by capturing the heat that would normally be lost through the flue, and using it to preheat the cold water entering the boiler. This makes them more efficient than other types, as they are able to extract more heat from the fuel. 

If you’re interested in reducing your carbon footprint, you should look into installing this system. Federal law requires that all new boilers use this condensed water process. However, they may not be as efficient in homes with low hot water demand, as the heat exchanger may not have enough heat to transfer.

When choosing a boiler, it’s important to consider the size of your home, your budget, and your energy needs. You may also want to consider the availability of fuel in your area, as well as any local building codes or regulations. It’s always a good idea to consult with a qualified technician or heating professional to determine the best boiler for your needs.

Common Boiler Problems and How to Fix Them

As with any mechanical system, boilers can experience problems from time to time. Here are some common issues you may encounter with your boiler and some potential solutions:

No heat or hot water:

If your boiler is not providing heat or hot water, there could be several potential causes. It could be a problem with the thermostat, the fuel supply, or the ignition system. Check the thermostat to make sure it is set correctly, and check the fuel supply to ensure it is flowing properly. 


If your boiler is leaking water, it could be a sign of a damaged pipe or faulty valve. Try tightening any loose connections and check the pressure gauge to make sure the pressure is within the recommended range. 


Kettling is a common issue in boilers where the water in the system becomes trapped and overheats, causing a loud knocking or rumbling noise. This can be caused by a build-up of limescale in the heat exchanger, or by a blockage in the system. To fix kettling, you may need to descale the heat exchanger or clear any blockages in the system.

Pilot light issues:

If the pilot light on your boiler goes out or won’t stay lit, it could be caused by a faulty thermocouple or a dirty burner. Clean the burner and check the thermocouple to see if it needs to be replaced. 

Low pressure:

If the pressure in your boiler is too low, it can cause the system to shut down or not function properly. Check the pressure gauge to see if it is within the recommended range, and refill the system if necessary. If the pressure continues to drop, it could be a sign of a leak or other issue that requires professional attention.

By understanding these common boiler problems and how to fix them, you can keep your system running smoothly and avoid costly repairs.

Troubleshooting and Repairing Your Boiler on Your Own

While it is always best to consult a qualified professional for major repairs to your boiler, there are some simple troubleshooting and maintenance tasks that you can do on your own to help keep your system running smoothly. Here are a few tips for troubleshooting and repairing your boiler on your own:

Troubleshooting and Repairing Your Boiler
Troubleshooting and Repairing Your Boiler
  1. Check the thermostat: Make sure the thermostat is set correctly and that the batteries are working.
  2. Check the fuel supply: Ensure that the fuel supply, whether it be natural gas or oil, is flowing properly and that there are no obstructions.
  3. Check the pressure gauge: The pressure gauge should be within the recommended range. If the pressure is too low, you may need to refill the system.
  4. Clean the burners: Over time, the burners on your boiler can become clogged with dirt and debris. Cleaning the burners can help improve the efficiency of your system and extend its lifespan.
  5. Check for leaks: Look for any visible signs of a leak, such as wet spots on the floor or water dripping from the pipes. Tighten any loose connections and check the pressure gauge to make sure the pressure is within the recommended range.

By regularly performing these simple maintenance tasks, you can help prevent issues with your boiler and extend its lifespan. However, if you encounter a problem that you are unable to fix on your own, it is always best to consult a qualified professional for assistance.

The Importance of Choosing a Qualified Boiler Technician

Maintaining and repairing your boiler is an important aspect of homeownership, and choosing a qualified technician to work on your system is crucial. Here are a few reasons why it’s important to choose a qualified boiler technician:

  1. Safety: Working on a boiler can be dangerous, as it involves handling potentially hazardous materials and working with high temperatures and pressures. A qualified technician has the training and experience to safely handle these tasks, ensuring that the repair or maintenance work is done correctly and without risk of injury.
  2. Knowledge and expertise: A qualified technician has the knowledge and expertise to accurately diagnose and fix any issues with your boiler. They will be able to identify the root cause of the problem and provide a solution that will effectively resolve the issue.
  3. Compliance with regulations: A qualified technician will be familiar with local building codes and regulations, ensuring that the work they do is compliant and meets all necessary standards.
  4. Efficiency: A qualified technician will be able to identify and fix issues with your boiler in a timely and efficient manner, ensuring that your system is running smoothly and efficiently.
  5. Cost savings: Choosing a qualified technician to work on your boiler can actually save you money in the long run. An unqualified technician may not have the skills or knowledge to properly repair or maintain your system, resulting in costly repairs or replacement down the road.

By choosing a qualified boiler technician, you can ensure that your system is properly maintained and repaired, and that your home is safe and energy-efficient.

Energy-Saving for Your Boiler Heating System

There are several ways you can save energy and reduce your energy costs with your boiler heating system:

  • Set the thermostat to a lower temperature when you’re not home or when you’re sleeping.
  • Install a programmable thermostat to automatically adjust the temperature based on your schedule.
  • Insulate your pipes to prevent heat loss and improve the efficiency of your system.
  • Check the pressure gauge regularly and refill the system if necessary.
  • Have your system serviced regularly to ensure it is running efficiently.
  • Turn off any unnecessary lights and appliances when not in use.

The Role of Boiler Insulation in Energy Efficiency

Proper insulation is an important factor in the efficiency of your boiler system. Insulating your pipes and boiler can help prevent heat loss and improve the overall efficiency of your system. This can lead to significant energy savings and lower heating costs.

The Benefits of Upgrading to a High-Efficiency Boiler

 High-efficiency boilers are more efficient at converting fuel into heat, which can lead to significant energy savings.

  • Improved comfort: High-efficiency boilers are more consistent and reliable, which can improve the overall comfort of your home.
  • Reduced carbon footprint: High-efficiency boilers use less fuel and produce fewer emissions, making them a more environmentally friendly option.
  • Potential rebates and incentives: Many utilities offer rebates and incentives for homeowners who upgrade to a high-efficiency boiler, which can help offset the initial cost of the upgrade.

Understanding the Differences Between Furnaces and Boilers

If you live in the United States, chances are that your home is equipped with either a furnace or a boiler to keep it warm. Furnaces use air to heat your home, circulating it through a system of ducts to distribute the warmth evenly. Boilers, on the other hand, use water to produce either hot water or steam, which can be distributed through radiators or used to heat air through a coil. Steam boilers tend to run at higher temperatures, which can make them less efficient compared to hot water boilers. However, both types of heating systems now come in high-efficiency versions that can help reduce energy costs and improve the overall comfort of your home. 

Efficiency Rating of Furnaces and Boilers

When it comes to heating your home, efficiency is a key factor to consider. One way to measure the efficiency of a furnace or boiler is through its annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating. This rating is a measure of how much of the energy from fuel is converted into heat over the course of a year. For example, a furnace with an AFUE of 90% means that almost all (90 out of 100) of the energy from the fuel is used to heat the home, while the remaining 10% is lost through the chimney and other places.

The Federal Trade Commission requires that new furnaces and boilers display their AFUE rating, so consumers can compare the efficiency of different models. It’s important to note that the AFUE rating does not include the heat loss from the duct system or piping, which can be as much as one-third of the energy output of the furnace. In order to maximize the efficiency of your heating system, it’s important to properly insulate and seal the ducts and ensure that the piping is properly installed and maintained.

All-electric furnaces and boilers are highly efficient, with AFUE ratings ranging from 95% to a perfect 100%. However, the higher cost of electricity in most parts of the country may make all-electric heating systems an uneconomic choice. If you are interested in electric heating, you may want to consider installing a heat pump system instead. Heat pump systems use electricity to move heat from one place to another, rather than generating heat directly. This can make them more efficient and cost-effective in certain climates.


  1. Do boiler heating systems actually “boil” water?

Modern boilers do not heat water. The term “boiler” is a legacy from a time when steam boilers, which boiled water to produce steam, were more widespread. Today’s boilers are typically natural gas water heaters that can heat water to a variety of temperatures, often 145-190 degrees, relying on the radiation mechanism.

  1. How do boilers provide heat?

Radiant heat from boilers heats the things in a room. A forced-air furnace, on the other hand, warms the air in a space, which causes items to absorb heat more gradually. Boilers are preferred by some people because they may reduce their thermostat setting and the radiant heat makes a space feel warmer than it actually is. 

  1. What are the most important things to know about your boiler heating system?

It’s critical to understand whether your boiler is a high-efficiency or standard-efficiency model, as well as whether it is vented through PVC or metal pipe. Additionally, you need to be aware of who will be in charge of servicing the boiler and if you have fintube, baseboard, or cast iron radiators for your radiation. The U.S. Boiler Company advises performing regular maintenance to make sure the boiler is operating safely and effectively as well as to spot and avoid possible issues.

  1. What are the common reasons that boilers break or stop working?

Electrical parts like controllers and thermostats can stop functioning, and pumps can malfunction. Unwanted air can enter the system, and insufficient water pressure can hinder the system from moving the water, which prevents the boiler from radiating heat properly or at all.

  1. Do water heater boilers prevent humidity problems that are common with forced-air furnaces that lack a built-in humidifier?

It is based on the boiler’s effectiveness. Technically speaking, boiler systems—with the exception of cast iron boilers—do not remove or increase humidity. A low-efficiency boiler, on the other hand, will consume indoor air to generate the required combustion flame, which could dry out the air in the house. A high-efficiency boiler, in contrast, draws air from outside to achieve combustion while having little impact on the air inside.

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